Project 1 - Coronavirus

  • Funded by National Institutes of Health (NIH)
  • Total publications:0 publications

Grant number: 5U19AI142759-02

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Key facts

  • Disease

    COVID-19
  • Known Financial Commitments (USD)

    $1,024,373
  • Funder

    National Institutes of Health (NIH)
  • Principle Investigator

    Pending
  • Research Location

    United States of America, Americas
  • Lead Research Institution

    UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA AT BIRMINGHAM
  • Research Category

    Therapeutics research, development and implementation

  • Research Subcategory

    Pre-clinical studies

  • Special Interest Tags

    Gender

  • Study Subject

    Non-Clinical

  • Clinical Trial Details

    N/A

  • Broad Policy Alignment

    Pending

  • Age Group

    Not Applicable

  • Vulnerable Population

    Not applicable

  • Occupations of Interest

    Not applicable

Abstract

PROJECT SUMMARYZoonotic coronaviruses (CoVs) such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV are pandemic threats. MERS-CoVcontinues to cause new zoonotic and human transmission and illness with ~35% mortality. Currently, there areno FDA-approved therapies to treat any CoV. New zoonotic CoVs likely will emerge from heterogeneous viruspools in animal reservoirs, thus requiring antiviral strategies aimed at completely conserved and vulnerabletargets. CoVs rapidly select for resistance to multiple classes of inhibitors, demonstrating the need forapproaches to prevent resistance emergence. Both SARS and MERS infections manifest as severeimmunopathologic damage, potentially limiting the therapeutic window for direct-acting antivirals (DAAs).Immunomodulation in the absence of antivirals has been shown to not be beneficial and to even exacerbateSARS and MERS disease. Thus, combinations of DAAs and targeted immunomodulators may be necessary foreffective treatment of established infection. The overall goal of our program is to develop CoV antiviralstrategies that broadly inhibit known and future potential pandemic zoonotic CoVs, prevent emergenceof resistance, and extend the therapeutic window by targeting host immunopathologic responses. Theproposed research will advance preclinical development of the CoV-inhibitory nucleoside analogue EIDD-1931/2801 and other nucleoside analogues in the pipeline and test two small-molecule hits identified as highlyactive against SARS-CoV for treatment and prevention of epidemic and pre-emergent CoVs. In Specific Aim 1,the spectrum of antiviral activity and therapeutic efficacy of compounds will be defined. The antiviral efficacy,metabolism, and cytotoxicity of each compound will be determined in cultures of primary human lung cellstargeted by SARS- and MERS-CoV. The prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of lead compounds will beevaluated in young, aged, and immunosuppressed murine models of SARS and MERS pathogenesis. InSpecific Aim 2, the mechanism of action of lead compounds and kinetics of drug resistance will be determined.The antiviral effect of compounds on virus replication, fidelity, and induction of innate immunity will be assessed.Resistance mutations in genomes of MERS- and SARS-CoV passaged in the presence of increasingconcentrations of drug will be determined by deep sequencing. The impact of resistance on SARS- and MERS-CoV virulence, sensitivity to other drugs, and therapeutic efficacy of lead compounds will be determined.Specific Aim 3 will focus on the development of combination regimens for the treatment of emerging CoVs. Thecombined therapeutic efficacy of DAAs against infections with both wild-type and drug-resistant SARS- andMERS-CoV will be defined using cultured cells and mice. The therapeutic effect of treatment combining a DAAwith an immunomodulator will be assessed in mouse models of SARS and MERS. These studies will generatemechanistic and efficacy data necessary for IND filing and origination of human clinical trials.